The Ancient Cure for Depression

By Sara Burrows on Monday March 14th, 2016

Counteracting the health impact of a Civilized Lifestyle

Depression is a global epidemic. It is the main driver behind suicide, which now claims more than a million lives per year worldwide. One in four Americans will suffer from clinical depression within their lifetimes, and the rate is increasing with every generation.

It robs people of sleep, energy, focus, memory, sex drive and their basic ability to experience the pleasures of life, says author of The Depression Cure Stephen Ilardi. It can destroy people’s desire to love, work, play and even their will to live. If left unchecked it can cause permanent brain damage.

DepressionDepression robs people of sleep, energy, focus, memory and sex drive

Depression lights up the pain circuitry of the brain to such an extent that many of Ildari’s psychiatric patients have called it torment, agony and torture. “Many begin to look to death as a welcome means of escape,” he said in a Ted Talks presentation.

But depression is not a natural disease. It is not an inevitable part of being human. Ildari argues, like many diseases, depression is a disease of civilization. It’s a disease caused by a high-stress, industrialized, modern lifestyle that is incompatible with our genetic evolution.

Depression is the result of a prolonged stress-response, Ildari said. The brain’s “runaway stress response” – as he calls it – is similar to the fight or flight response, which evolved to help our ancestors when they faced predators or other physical dangers. The runaway stress response required intense physical activity for a few seconds, a few minutes, or – in extreme cases – a few hours.

“The problem is for many people throughout the Western world, the stress response goes on for weeks, months and even years at a time, and when it does that, it’s incredibly toxic,”
Ildari said.

Living under continually stressful conditions – as many modern humans do – is disruptive to neuro-chemicals like dopamine and seratonin, which can lead to sleep disturbance, brain damage, immune dysregulation and inflammation, Ildari says.

StressedLiving under continually stressful conditions

Civilization is the disease

Epidemiologists have now identified a long list of other stress-related diseases as “diseases of civilization” – diabetes, atherosclerosis, asthma, allergies, obesity and cancer. These diseases are rampant throughout the developed world, but virtually non-existent among modern-day aboriginal peoples.

In a study of 2000 Kaluli aborigines from Papua New Guinea, only one marginal case of clinical depression was found. Why? Because the Kaluli lifestyle is very similar to our hunter-gatherer ancestors’ lifestyle that lasted for nearly 2 million years before agriculture, Ildari said.

“99.9 percent of the human experience was lived in a hunter-gatherer context,” he added. “Most of the selection pressures that have sculpted and shaped our genomes are really well adapted for that environment and that lifestyle.”

Tribal people in Papua New GuineaHunter-gatherer lifestyle

In view of nearly 3 million years of hominid existence, since homo habilis first began use of stone tools, our genus has undergone rapid environmental change since the advent of agriculture about 12,000 years ago. And in the last 200 years, since the industrial revolution, our species has had to cope with what Ildari calls “radical environmental mutation.”

While our environment has radically mutated, our human genome is essentially the same as it was 200 years ago, Ildari says. “That’s only eight generations. It’s not enough time [for significant genetic adaptations].”

“There’s a profound mismatch between the genes we carry, the bodies and brains that they are building, and the world that we find ourselves in,” he said. “We were never designed for the sedentary, indoor, socially isolated, fast-food-laden, sleep-deprived frenzied pace of modern life.” 

The Cure

Though he’s not entirely opposed to medication, Ildari says we can throw all the drugs in the world at the depression epidemic, and it won’t make a dent.

Anti depressant use has gone up 300 percent in the last 20 years, but the rate of depression has continued to increase. One in nine Americans over age 12 is currently taking an antidepressant, and one in five have been on them at some point.

Depressed childThe rise in youth depression

The answer, Ildari says, is a change in lifestyle. He says the results of his six step program have exceeded his wildest dreams:

1. Exercise
2. Omega 3 Fatty Acids
3. Sunlight
4. Healthy Sleep
5. Anti-ruminative activity
6. Social connection

In his presentation, he emphasized the importance of exercise and social connection, as they are two of the hardest parts of the program for modern Americans.

Exercise is ‘not natural’

Ildari says the results of exercise on depression are so powerful that if they could be reduced into a pill, it would be the most expensive pill on earth. The problem is 60 percent of American adults get no regular physical activity. Ildari says it’s not their fault. Between long days at work and household and family responsibilities to attend to, who has the time or energy to hit the gym?

OverworkedLong days at work and household and family responsibilities

The dirty little secret about exercise, Ildari says, is “it is not natural.” We are designed to be physically active “in the service of adapted goals,” not to exercise on a hamster wheel.

Hunter gatherers get four or more hours of vigorous physical activity every day, but if you ask them they will tell you they don’t exercise, Ildari says. “They don’t work out. Working out would be crazy to them. They live.”

“When you put a lab rat on a treadmill … it will squat down on it’s haunches, and the treadmill starts to rub the fur and the skin right off it’s back side,” he said. “When you stare at a piece of exercise equipment, there is a part of your brain that’s screaming out ‘Don’t do it! You’re not going anywhere!’”

Brisk walkingGoing on a brisk walk

If you can’t go out gathering your own nuts and berries or hunting your own meat, Ildari recommends brisk walking with a friend. Walking for 30 minutes, three times a week, has better effects on depression than Zoloft, he said.

Social Connection

Another huge factor in modern depression is the lack of social connection in our modern nuclear-family bubbles. “Face-time with our loved ones puts the breaks on our stress response,” Ildari says.

The problem is we’ve replaced face-time with screen-time.

Our hunter gatherer ancestors spent all day every day in the company of their loved ones.

Unfortunately illness, including mental illness, triggers people to isolate themselves, which only makes depression worse.

Tribal childrenOur hunter gatherer ancestors spent all day every day in the company of their loved ones

“Resist the urge to withdraw,” Ildari says, “because when you’re ill, your body tells you to shut down and pull away. When you have the flu, that’s adaptive. When you have depression, it’s the worst thing in the world you could do.”

Rewilding and Tribal Living

What Ildari didn’t mention in his Ted Talk is how difficult his cure is for most modern humans to attain. Sure, we’d all like more fresh air, sunlight, exercise, a better diet, better sleep, less monotonous work, and more interaction with loved ones, but who has time for all that?

Getting outdoorsWe’d all like more fresh air, sunlight, exercise. Credit: Alexandra Merisoiu.

I’m stuck here staring at my screen typing about it in an effort to make a living for myself, and many of you don’t even have time to read this article because you have 50+ hours-a-week jobs of your own. Meanwhile, immediate-return hunter-gatherers work an average of 17 hours a week. In this world, we certainly can’t just quit our jobs to be less stressed, when the financial stress would create more stress.

In my opinion, the answer lies in baby steps. Baby steps away from dependence on civilization, and toward nature, earth skills, and self-sustaining communal living. These are things I plan to learn more about while building this website. I’m excited to share what I learn with you, and hope you’ll share your knowledge with me.



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Autonomic dysfunction diseases are rampant in the US and the EU but seldom found in other areas. They are generally caused by the brain’s “Fight or Flight” responses going into overdrive. Some, like Multiple System Atrophy are killers as the immune systems destroys the brain and the body. Why is it so regional? Could it be that we just short-circuit our Fight or Flight responses?

Caroline Richards
Caroline Richards

I’m with you, Sara. Baby steps and ‘Be the change’. It will take pioneers, like yourself, to reconnect us all with life: real, whole, full, connected life! It’s the small actions that are radical. When I had my children I decided to stay home to care for them and create a home and community for my family. Seems small, but feels radical in our current culture. Power to you, and all at Uplift!


Wonderful! Your children will be so much better off for it. They are not designed to be separated from their primary caregiver so young. And,I agree with the rest of your comment and the article. We need to get back more to our evolutionary ways of life

Noreen O'Brien
Noreen O'Brien

Living in depression .. holds my mind in a memory, a belief, an understanding .. that makes history my ground.. There is no understanding that a future holds opportunity .. there is no ability to ‘plan a future’ .. surviving is the only impreative .. the loop of thinking is confirmed by “what happened once” .. I make myself invisible to the world .. a world I believe is not trustworthy .. this reaction is mirrored in the behavior of a frightened dog .. cowerying when someone …offers the affection of a loving touch. Those of us who know this… Read more »


Beautiful…and, for me, the depression keeps me from being able to tackle the survival imperative, so suicide becomes the only obvious choice. An SSRI, thank God, has kept me alive now for 18 years, and perhaps someday I will be able to muster the ability to try all of those other things to see if they could be as effective as the med for me.


catalinakel , I do hope you are able to find the peace that is inate in all of us. I also experienced depression. some as a result of PTSD and the brain damage done and the assosicative stimuli that exist in our day to day. Theripy helped, meds helps threw theripy and then I found my own way threw nutritional means and the constant vigial of connecting to the things I knew I loved but couldn’t feel the love or much at all. Peace be yours and a smiliing heart


I have to disagree with large parts of this article. We are living in an evolved culture of victim. It is all too easy to become depressed.

Citing ancient or historical human behaviour is like comparing bananas to cars. As a species we have evolved from even 50 years ago and as an anthropologist I can’t justify this.

And yes i suffer from depression, but as a result of FM.

Doreen M Paul-Sappier
Doreen M Paul-Sappier

I totally agree. I suffer from this illness for 25 years now. I also disagree with this article 🙁

Alima Shafiya
Alima Shafiya

I have hereditary major depression. So did my dad and his mother. I have taken SSRI’s since 1990. I also have arthritis, fibromyalgia, an artificial hip, and as of yesterday, a torn meniscus in my right knee. I can tell you from experience, that gardening, dancing, belonging to a cooperative enterprise, and joining a church or other spiritual group are all very good things against depression. Recently, I ended many years of personal isolation by moving to the town I’ve always wanted to live in, with an old friend. I was able to cut my dosage in half, but not… Read more »


Thank you for sharing your story. It is inspiring.


Lexapro. And Citalopram is Celexa.


Ive been on so many anti depressant meds SSRI’s and now on Effexor XR for the past 6 months and still find no relief… 225mg. Side effects are awful eg Anger Irritable Nervous Hostility oh where will it end??


Im on Effexor & they really work for me. (225mg also) so be careful as it sounds like they’re not the ones for you.
Take care

Janice Lamb Molson
Janice Lamb Molson

This theory makes absolute sense to me…. I heard a professor, about 10 years ago, speak on the challenge our bodies have with weight loss. His studies included the “groundhog” and how this animal eats multiple times its body weight just prior to hibernation, then sleeps for months and comes out thin again with no excercise. His theory basically states the same thing….The human body has not adapted genetically to realize that if we are hungry we can usually just pop over to the store to buy some food. What happens internally when the body feel hunger is it goes… Read more »

Sara Jannae
Sara Jannae

Love it n so need this in my life. Exercise is my anti depressant the rest is hard to come by